Wednesday, March 21, 2018

The One Vehicle of the Primal Vow - the ultimate teaching of Shakyamuni and all Buddhas

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Shakyamuni Buddha teaching the Larger Sutra on Amida Buddha
- the Supreme Turning of the Wheel of Dharma
It is very important to understand that Shinran Shonin did not consider the Primal Vow and the teaching explaining it, to be just a path among the many Mahayana methods, but the supreme Buddhist vehicle, the One Vehicle[1] of the Primal Vow (Universal Vow), the most important teaching of all Buddhas, the true, hidden reason for their coming to this world.
He said:

 "Respectfully I proclaim to all aspirants of Birth: The ocean of the One Vehicle of the Universal Vow"[2]

„When I ponder the ocean of the One Vehicle of the Primal Vow, I see that it is the all-merging, perfect, unhindered, absolute, and unparalleled teaching that brings about the quickest effect"[3].

"Know that because the One Vehicle of the Primal Vow is the ultimate sudden teaching, the teaching of sudden and instantaneous attainment, the perfectly fulfilled teaching, and the consummate teaching, it is the absolute and incomparable teaching, the path of true reality or suchness. It is the single within the single, the sudden within the sudden, the true within the true, the consummate within the consummate. The One Vehicle that is true reality is the ocean of the great Vow. It is the supreme, rare practice."[4]

Why is it "the ultimate sudden teaching" or "teaching of sudden and instantaneous attainment"? Because through this teaching we will attain perfect Enlightenment in the very moment of our birth in the Pure Land. This is also the reason why it is "the path of true reality or suchness" and "the One Vehicle that is true reality". If we enter the Pure Land of Amida Buddha through the gate of the Primal Vow, we immediately attain true reality or suchness, that is Dharmakaya of Buddha nature. 

Why is it the „unparalleled teaching”, "the perfectly fulfilled teaching, the consummate teaching" and "the absolute and incomparable teaching"?
Because it is the ultimate teaching of all Buddhas, the true meaning of their coming in various samsaric realms and because no other teaching, practice or Dharma gate can bring so easily ALL beings, without any discrimination of their respective virtues or lack of any virtue, to the attainment of perfect Enlightenment:

“Shakyamuni Tathagata appeared in this world
Solely to teach the oceanlike Primal Vow of Amida;
We, an ocean of beings in an evil age of five defilements,
Should entrust ourselves to the Tathagata’s words of truth”.[5]

"Truly we know, then, that the crucial matter for which the Great Sage, the World-honored One, appeared in this world was to reveal the true benefit of the compassionate Vow and to declare it to be the direct teaching of the Tathagatas. The essential purport of this great compassion is to teach the immediate attainment of Birth by foolish beings. Thus, looking into the essence of the teachings of the Buddhas, we find that the true and fundamental intent for which all the Tathagatas, past, present, and future, appear in this world, is solely to teach the inconceivable Vow of Amida".[6]

'It is the single within the single, the sudden within the sudden, the true within the true, the consummate within the consummate" because no other Dharma gate or Buddhist path can compare with the Primal Vow. Among all the sudden teachings this is the most sudden, as no other path brings sentient beings to ultimate realization so quickly like the Primal Vow. It is the "true within the true" because even if all Buddhist paths are true paths (non-buddhist teachings are all partially or completely false) among them, the Primal Vow of Amida Buddha is the true intent of all Buddha's enlightened activities.

"It is the supreme, rare practice" because, according to the 17th Vow, all Buddhas say the Name of Amida Buddha and encourage us to say it.

 And because, as Honen Shonin explained, this Name contains,

"the merit of the inner realization of Tathagata Amida and His external activities, as well as the merit of Buddha Shakyamuni's extremely profound teachings, which are as numerous as the grains of sand in the Ganges".[7]

Because, "all of the merits of the teachings, the meditative practices on the phenomenal aspect of reality and the noumenal principle, the unmatched power acquired through meditation and wisdom, the wisdom of inner realization, and the merit of external activities, as well as all of the virtues and undefiled Enlightenment of Tathagata Amida, Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, Bodhisattva Mahasthamaprapta, Bodhisattva Samanthabhadra, Bodhisattva Manjusri, Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha, Nagarjuna, and the Bodhisattvas and Sravakas of the Pure Land are encompassed in the three characters of the Name of Amida".[8]

In relation with this, Master Ch’ing-wen said:

" The Name of Amida’s Buddhahood is most distinguished as the embodiment of the perfect
virtues of myriad practices."[9]

Shinran Shonin also said:

"Know that the Buddha has gathered all roots of good into the three syllables, A-MI-DA, so that to say the Name, Namo Amida Butsu, is to adorn the Pure Land."[10]

As faith (shinjin) in Amida Buddha is the fundamental element of the Primal Vow, the  basis of the genuine saying of the Name (Nembutsu) and aspiration for birth in the Pure Land, it means that  faith itself is the supreme One Vehicle of the Primal Vow:

"It is stated (Master Shan-tao):
'Deep mind is the deeply entrusting mind. There are two aspects. The first is to believe deeply and decidedly that you are in actuality a foolish being of karmic evil caught in birth and death, ever sinking and ever wandering in transmigration from innumerable kalpas in the past, with never a condition that would lead to emancipation. The second is to believe deeply and decidedly that Amida Buddha's Forty-eight Vows grasp sentient beings, and that allowing yourself to be carried by the power of the Vow without any doubt or apprehension, you will attain Birth'".

The deeply entrusting mind expounded above is the diamondlike mind that is the consummation of Other Power, the ocean of true and real shinjin that is the supreme One Vehicle."[11]

            Because the One Vehicle of the Primal Vow was presented in the Larger Sutra it means that this sutra is the most important among all the sutras taught by Shakyamuni. More than this, it is the main reason for which He appeared in the world:

"To begin, the teaching of the Pure Land way is found in the Larger Sutra of Immeasurable Life. The central purport of this sutra is that Amida, by establishing the incomparable Vows, has opened wide the Dharma-storehouse, and full of compassion for small, foolish beings, selects and bestows the treasure of virtues. It reveals that Shakyamuni appeared in this world and expounded the teachings of the way to Enlightenment, seeking to save the multitudes of living beings by blessing them with the benefit that is true and real. Assuredly this sutra is the true teaching for which the Tathagata appeared in the world. It is the wondrous scripture, rare and most excellent. It is the conclusive and ultimate exposition of the One Vehicle. It is the right teaching, praised by all the Buddhas throughout the ten quarters. To teach Tathagata's Primal Vow is the true intent of this sutra; the Name of the Buddha is its essence”.[12]

The Larger Sutra reveals the true teaching. It is indeed the right exposition for which the Tathagata appeared in the world, the wondrous scripture rare and most excellent, the conclusive and ultimate exposition of the One Vehicle, the precious words disclosing perfect, instantaneous fulfillment, the sincere words praised by all the Buddhas throughout the ten quarters, the true teaching in consummate readiness for the beings of this day. Let this be known”[13].

Various Buddhist schools teach about three or four turnings of the Wheel of Dharma[14]:

1)      The first turning of the Wheel of Dharma happened when Shakyamuni taught the Four Noble Truths and other elements found in some of His early discourses. This is mainly concerned with abandoning negative actions of the body, speech and mind and is considered to be the Hinayana Vehicle (Smaller Vehicle) because it aims at the self-purification and self-liberation from the cycle of the repeated births and deaths.
2)      The second turning of the Wheel of Dharma emphasized emptiness of self and phenomena as explained in the Prajnaparamita sutras, as well as compassion which naturally arises out of a genuine understanding of emptiness.  
3)      The third turning of the Wheel of Dharma comprises sutras like Mahaparinirvana Sutra, Avatamsaka Sutra, Lankavatara Sutra, etc, where Shakyamuni explained that all sentient beings have Buddha nature (Tathagatagarbha doctrine) and the potential to become Buddhas. It also teaches the abandonment of the clinging to emptiness.

The 2nd and 3rd turning of the Wheel of Dharma constitute the Mahayana Vehicle (Greater Vehicle) because it aims at the liberation of all beings, not only of oneself.

4)      The fourth turning of the Wheel of Dharma is referred by Vajrayana or Esoteric Schools as the Tantric teachings. The Vajrayana considers the previous three turnings of the Wheel of Dharma as belonging to the sutras. In comparison with them, the tantras contain esoteric and secret practices which supposedly can help very advanced practitioners to attain Buddhahood in this present body. We cannot separate the Vajrayana vehicle of the tantras from Mahayana because the aspiration to become a Buddha for all beings, as well as all the main teachings on Buddha nature and emptiness are also present in the Vajrayana. We can rather say that Vajrayana is a development of Mahayana with different emphasis on views and practice.  

I do not wish to enter into details about each of the above turnings of the Wheel of Dharma, or their various interpretations in different schools because these are not important for the goal of this book, so please refer to knowledgeable scholars if you are interested in this matter. The most important thing for us, followers of the Primal Vow, is that such a classification is not ultimate. In the light of the previous explanations and passages from Shinran Shonin, we can safely say that there was another and more important turning of the Wheel of Dharma - the teaching offered by Shakyamuni Buddha in the Larger  Sutra in which He told the story of Amida Buddha and His way of indiscriminative salvation of all sentient beings (the Primal Vow). Thus, I think it’s safe to call this sutra the fifth turning of the Wheel of Dharma or better, the Most Important Turning of the Wheel of Dharma. This supreme turning of the Wheel of Dharma constitutes the One Vehicle of the Primal Vow.

This is the correct way that we, devotees of the Primal Vow, should regard the teaching we follow. To see the Primal Vow and the teaching related with it as being the supreme or most important Turning of the Wheel of Dharma does not imply the denigration of the previous turnings, or of the teachings contained in the tantras and various sutras. All the teachings of the Four Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma, and all vehicles, Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana, have their own importance and they deserve our equal respect. The reason we call the Larger Sutra the Supreme Turning of the Wheel of Dharma is because it contains the most accessible teaching and method to bring all sentient beings, no matter their capacities, to the quick attainment of Buddhahood (perfect Enlightenment). “Supreme” here refers exclusively to the capacity to save all beings in comparison with other Dharma gates of the Four Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma which can bring to Buddhahood only those practitioners with superior capacities. Because these other Dharma gates are not capable to save all beings equally, they are of limited relevance, and so, they are not the supreme teaching or the true reason for Shakyamuni and all Buddhas coming to this world:

„The two forms of relevance are: first, limited relevance; second, universal relevance. The Pure Land is the teaching of universal relevance.”[15]

When looking with their divine eyes and divine understanding to all the teachings and practices, all Buddhas realize that among them, only Amida Buddha has the most effective method of salvation, and thus, Amida’s Primal Vow alone better responds to the reason they themselves are active in the samsaric realms of existence – to bring all beings to perfect Enlightenment. This is why Shakyamuni mentions in the Smaller Amida Sutra (Amidakyo) that the Buddhas of the ten directions give witness to, praise Amida and encourage all beings to accept His Dharma[16]. Master Shan-tao said:

"One should have an unshakable faith in the passage from the Smaller Sutra that states that all Buddhas in the ten directions, as numerous as the grains of sand in the Ganges, testified and encouraged all sentient beings to attain birth in the Pure Land."[17]

"All the Buddhas in the ten directions, fearing disbelief in the teaching of the sole Buddha, Shakyamuni, with the same heart and at the same time extended their tongues, enveloped the three thousand great-thousand worlds, and said these sincere words, 'All sentient beings should believe in the teachings preached, praised, and validated by Buddha Shakyamuni. All common people must believe that regardless of the balance of vice and virtue  and regardless of the time spent reciting nembutsu - once, ten times, for one day, or for seven days up to one hundred years - if one utters the Name of Amida Buddha from the depth of one's heart[18], birth in the Pure Land will certainly be possible. The Buddhas averred that you must not doubt this'"[19]

As Shinran said, the testimony of the Buddhas of the ten directions, countless as the sands of the Ganges River, has not been made in vain[20]. He also said:

"In the giving of witness to the Primal Vow, there are three Buddha- bodies.
The witness of Dharma-body (ultimate Dharmakaya); The Larger Sutra states: ‚From the sky a voice declared in praise, 'You shall decidedly and without fail attain the supreme Enlightenment!'
The witness of fulfilled bodies (Sambhogakaya Buddhas); this refers to the Tathagatas of the ten quarters
The witness of transformed bodies (Nirmanakaya Buddhas); this refers to Lokesvararaja Buddha."[21]

This is also why Amida promised in His 17th Vow that all Buddhas will praise His Name. By praising His Name the Buddhas are actually praising His Primal Vow where saying of the Name in faith is the method of being born in His Pure Land.  We must clearly understand this:

"I understand that that which is called 'the Vow that all Buddhas say the Name' and 'the Vow that all Buddhas praise the Name' is for the purpose of encouraging the sentient beings of the ten quarters to entrust themselves to Amida's Vow. Further, I have been taught that it fulfills the purpose of bringing to an end the doubting thought of the sentient beings of the ten quarters. This is understood to be the witness of the Buddhas of the ten quarters taught in the Amida Sutra."[22]

"The Light of Amida Buddha shines without exception over all the ten directions, and the innumerable Buddhas in the universe, in unison, praise the Name of Amida Buddha."[23]

Not only other Buddhas praise Amida’s Name, thus encouraging beings everywhere to say it in faith, but they also work in many known and unknown ways to guide us all to accept Amida’s method of salvation:

„To the evil sentient beings of wrong views
In this evil age of the five defilements, in this evil world,
The Buddhas, countless as the sands of the Ganges,
Give the Name of Amida, urging them to entrust themselves to it".[24]

"Being born in the Buddha-land of happiness
Is the path to ultimate attainment of Buddhahood;
All the Buddhas acclaim the Pure Land,
For birth there is the unsurpassed means."[25]

„Sakyamuni, Amida, and the Buddhas of the ten quarters, all with the same mind, are no more apart from sentient beings of the nembutsu than shadows from things. [...] Shinjin is bestowed through the compassionate means of Sakyamuni, Amida, and all the Buddhas in the ten quarters.”[26]

"Sakyamuni and all the other Buddhas
Are truly our compassionate father and mother.
With various compassionate means they lead us to awaken
Supreme shinjin (faith)
that is true and real."[27]

As in the case of Vajrayana, we cannot separate the Vehicle of the Primal Vow from the Mahayana vehicle because both have the aspiration to bring all sentient beings to Buddhahood. We can rather say that the Vehicle of the Primal Vow is a consummation of Mahayana, as it offers the quickest and most accessible method for all beings:

„The selected Primal Vow is the true essence of the Pure Land way. The true essence of the Pure Land way is the consummation of Mahayana Buddhism."[28]

„It is the consummate teaching among consummate teachings,
The sudden teaching among sudden teachings."[29]

Even if Vajrayana may claim that its method is the quickest, it can never say that it can bring all sentient beings to Buddhahood, no matter their spiritual capacities. Thus, there is actually no Dharma Gate and no Buddhist vehicle which is so accesible to all beings like the Primal Vow, whose essence is the Nembutsu of faith:

"Although the various Dharma gates all lead to liberation,
None of them surpasses birth in the Western Land
through the Nembutsu."[30]

Namo Amida Bu



[1] One vehicle” („Ichijo” in Jpn or „Ekayana” in Skrt) is the complete and supreme Dharma of the Buddha which provides the method of attaining Buddhahood quickly.
[2] Shinran Shonin, Kyogyoshinsho, chapter II, Kyogyoshinsho – On Teaching, Practice, Faith, and Enlightenment, translated by Hisao Inagaki, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p. 70
[3] Shinran Shonin, Kyogyoshinsho, II, Kyogyoshinsho – On Teaching, Practice, Faith, and Enlightenment, translated by Hisao Inagaki, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p.71
[4] Shinran Shonin, Gutoku’s Notes, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.592 
[5] Shinran Shonin, Shoshinge, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.70
[6]Shinran Shonin, Passages on the Pure Land Way, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.317
[7] Honen Shonin in his  Commentary on the Three Sutras of Pure Land Buddhism;  The Promise of Amida Buddha - Honen's Path to Bliss; English translation of the Genko edition of the works of Honen Shonin - Collected Teachings of Kurodani Shonin: The Japanese Anthology (Wago Toroku), translated by Joji Atone and Yoko Hayashi, Wisdom Publications, Boston, 2011, p.81.
[8] Master Shan-tao as quoted by Honen Shonin in his  Commentary on the Three Sutras of Pure Land Buddhism;  The Promise of Amida Buddha - Honen's Path to Bliss; English translation of the Genko edition of the works of Honen Shonin - Collected Teachings of Kurodani Shonin: The Japanese Anthology (Wago Toroku), translated by Joji Atone and Yoko Hayashi, Wisdom Publications, Boston, 2011, p.81 - 83
[9] Master Ch’ing-wen as quoted by Shinran in Kyogyoshinsho, chapter II, Kyogyoshinsho – On Teaching, Practice, Faith, and Enlightenment, translated by Hisao Inagaki, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p. 51
[10] Shinran Shonin, Notes on the Inscription of Sacred Scrolls, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.504
[11] Shinran Shonin, Gutoku's Notes, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.604
[12] Shinran Shonin, Passages on the Pure Land Way, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.295-296
[13] Shinran Shonin, Kyogyoshinsho, chapter I, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.10
[14] „The Buddha turned the Wheel of Dharma and gave all the various teachings of the Hinayana, the Mahayana, and the Vajrayana in different places with different people and at all different times. But also because He was teaching students of vastly different abilities, at times it seemed to them as if the Buddha was mainly spreading the Hinayana; at times it seemed to them as if He was teaching the Mahayana and sometimes as if to the Vajrayana. Of course, this was just a matter of the way in which the people were perceiving the teachings of the Buddha; it seemed to some that the Buddha was giving completely Hinayana teachings and to others that He was giving completely Mahayana teaching. The Buddha could also be somewhere else and through His miraculous powers giving other teachings to others.
Because of this, some people started having the impression that the Buddha had only given the Hinayana teachings, and had not given the Mahayana teachings which were made up by someone else. Others believed that the Buddha had given the Mahayana teachings, but had not given the Vajrayana teachings and that these Vajrayana teachings had been fabricated by His followers. The belief that the Mahayana and the Vajrayana teachings were created by someone else is based on the belief the Buddha was just an ordinary man with no extraordinary qualities of Enlightenment instead of seeing a Buddha as being a very exceptional being who came into the world to help people out of His great compassion and to lead them to liberation. Once one thinks of the Buddha as an ordinary Indian man, then next one will have doubts as to whether He actually gave the various teachings attributed to Him and one begins picking and choosing between teachings of the various vehicles.
It is a mistake to identify the Buddha as an ordinary person and to start thinking that maybe the Buddha didn’t have complete knowledge, or was not able to teach a complete range of teachings or that the Buddha could have taught in this place, but not in that place. It is not worth entertaining such doubts because the Buddha was not an ordinary person nor was He a god who if pleased with you will send you to heaven and if displeased throw you into the hell realms. But at the same time, saying the Buddha is not a god doesn’t mean that we should think of the Buddha as someone devoid of any special qualities of knowledge, intelligence, and understanding or without any special direct intuition and insight. He was indeed a very special being who gave the complete set of Dharma teachings which were not in contradiction to each other. Each has its own relevance.”
The Three Vehicles of the Teachings of the Buddha, fragment from The Development of Buddhism in India by Ven. Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche, http://kagyuoffice.org/buddhism/buddhism-in-india/the-three-vehicles-of-the-teachings-of-the-buddha 
[15] Shinran Shonin, Lamp for the Latter-Ages, letter 8, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.535
[16][6] "Shariputra, just as I praise the inconceivable virtue of Amitayus, so do the Buddhas in the eastern direction, as numerous as the sands of the Ganges, such as Aksobhya Buddha, Meru-dhvaja Buddha, Mahameru Buddha, Meru-prabhasa Buddha, and Manju-svara Buddha. While dwelling in their own lands, they extend their long, broad tongues and, encompassing with them the universe of a thousand million worlds, pronounce these words of truth: Sentient beings should accept this sutra entitled 'Praise of the Inconceivable Virtue and Protection by All Buddhas.'
[7] "Shariputra, there are in the southern direction Buddhas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges, such as Candra-surya-pradipa Buddha, Yashah-prabha Buddha, Maharci-skandha Buddha, Meru-pradipa Buddha, and Ananta-virya Buddha. While dwelling in their own lands, they extend their long, broad tongues and, encompassing with them the universe of a thousand million worlds, pronounce these words of truth: Sentient beings should accept this sutra entitled 'Praise of the Inconceivable Virtue and Protection by All Buddhas.'
[8] "Shariputra, there are in the western direction Buddhas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges, such as Amitayus Buddha, Amita-ketu Buddha, Amita-dhvaja Buddha, Mahaprabha Buddha, Mahaprabhasa Buddha, Ratna-ketu Buddha and Shuddha-rashmi-prabha Buddha. While dwelling in their own lands, they extend their long, broad tongues and, encompassing with them the universe of a thousand million worlds, pronounce these words of truth: Sentient beings should accept this sutra entitled 'Praise of the Inconceivable Virtue and Protection by All Buddhas.'
[9] "Shariputra, there are in the northern direction Buddhas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges, such as Arci-skandha Buddha, Vaishvanara-nirghosa Buddha, Duspradharsa Buddha, Aditya-sambhava Buddha and Jalini-prabha Buddha. While dwelling in their own lands, they extend their long, broad tongues and, encompassing with them the universe of a thousand million worlds, pronounce these words of truth: Sentient beings should accept this sutra entitled 'Praise of the Inconceivable Virtue and Protection by All Buddhas.'
[10] "Shariputra, there are in the nadir Buddhas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges, such as Simha Buddha, Yashas Buddha, Yashah-prabhasa Buddha, Dharma Buddha, Dharma-dhvaja Buddha and Dharma-dhara Buddha. While dwelling in their own lands, they extend their long, broad tongues and, encompassing with them the universe of a thousand million worlds, pronounce these words of truth: Sentient beings should accept this sutra entitled 'Praise of the Inconceivable Virtue and Protection by All Buddhas.'
[11] "Shariputra, there are in the zenith Buddhas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges, such as Brahma-ghosa Buddha, Naksatra-raja Buddha, Gandhottama Buddha, Gandha-prabhasa Buddha, Maharci-skandha Buddha, Ratna-kusuma-sampuspita-gatra Buddha, Salendra-raja Buddha, Ratnotpalashri Buddha, Sarva-artha-darsha Buddha and Sumeru-kalpa Buddha. While dwelling in their own lands, they extend their long, broad tongues and, encompassing with them the universe of a thousand million worlds, pronounce these words of truth: Sentient beings should accept this sutra entitled 'Praise of the Inconceivable Virtue and Protection by All Buddhas.'”
The Three Pure Land Sutras, translated by Hisao Inagaki, BDK, English Tripitaka 12-II, III, IV, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, 2003, p.105-106
[17] Master Shan-tao quoted by Honen Shonin in An Outline of the Doctrine for Birth in the Pure Land,The Promise of Amida Buddha - Honen's Path to Bliss; English translation of the Genko edition of the works of Honen Shonin - Collected Teachings of Kurodani Shonin: The Japanese Anthology (Wago Toroku), translated by Joji Atone and Yoko Hayashi, Wisdom Publications, Boston, 2011, p.106
[18] "If one utters the Name of Amida Buddha from the depth of one's heart" means to say Amida's Name with an entrusting heart. This is the nembutsu of faith.
[19] Master Shan-tao, as quoted by Master Honen in his work, An Outline of the Doctrine for Birth in the Pure Land,The Promise of Amida Buddha - Honen's Path to Bliss; English translation of the Genko edition of the works of Honen Shonin - Collected Teachings of Kurodani Shonin: The Japanese Anthology (Wago Toroku), translated by Joji Atone and Yoko Hayashi, Wisdom Publications, Boston, 2011, p.116
[20] Shinran Shonin, Kyogyoshinsho, IV, Kyogyoshinsho – On Teaching, Practice, Faith, and Enlightenment, translated by Hisao Inagaki, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p. 260
[21] Shinran Shonin, Gutoku's Notes, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.591
[22] Shinran Shonin, A Collection of Letters, Letter 10, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.571
[23] Honen Shonin, Commentary on the Three Sutras of Pure Land Buddhism, The Promise of Amida Buddha - Honen's Path to Bliss; English translation of the Genko edition of the works of Honen Shonin - Collected Teachings of Kurodani Shonin: The Japanese Anthology (Wago Toroku), translated by Joji Atone and Yoko Hayashi, Wisdom Publications, Boston, 2011, p 76
[24] Shinran Shonin, Hymns of the Pure Land, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.347-348
[25] Shinran Shonin, Hymns of the Pure Land Masters, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.372
[26] Shinran Shonin, Lamp for the Latter-Ages, letter 2, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.526-527
[27] Shinran Shonin, Hymn of the Two Gateways of Entrance and Emergence, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.629
[28] Shinran Shonin, Lamp for the Latter-Ages, letter 1, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.524-525
[29] Shinran Shonin, Hymn of the Two Gateways of Entrance and Emergence, The Collected Works of Shinran, Shin Buddhism Translation Series, Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha, Kyoto, 1997, p.629
[30] Master Shan-tao, quoted by Shinran Shonin in Kyogyoshinsho, VI, Kyogyoshinsho – On Teaching, Practice, Faith, and Enlightenment, translated by Hisao Inagaki, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Kyoto, 2003, p. 263

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